COMORBID PATHOLOGY IN PATIENTS WITH MENTAL DISABILITY IN ADOLESCENCE
Introduction. Studies carried out in recent years have shown that both in Ukraine and abroad there is an increase in the number of children and adolescents with mental retardation, while the increase in morbidity occurs mainly due to an increase in the number of mild forms of pathology.
This category of patients has a wide range of concomitant mental and somatic pathologies.
Purpose of the study. To study the existing comorbid pathology in persons with mild mental retardation of adolescence and its influence on the course of the underlying disease.
Materials and methods. On the basis of the Kryvyi Rih neuropsychiatric dispensary, subject to informed consent, a two-stage study was carried out, in which 154 patients born in 2003-2008 were examined, who were under dispensary observation by a teenage psychiatrist upon reaching the age of 15. In the course of the study, clinical-epidemiological, clinical-psychopathological, psychodiagnostics and statistical methods were used.
The «Map for clinical and epidemiological studies» was used as the main research tool.
Research results. Among the comorbid mental disorders of adolescents with mild mental retardation, four main groups were found: behavioral disorders – 40.91%, specific developmental disorder of speech – in 37.01%, neurosis-like disorders – 26.62% and organic asthenic disorder – 24.03%.
Among the neurological pathologies, functional disorders of movements – 43.5%, dysarthria – 26.62%, autonomic disorders – 20.78% and TBI – 17.53% were found. Among comorbid somatic pathologies, diseases of the musculoskeletal system were most often presented – 53.89%, visual impairment – 28.57%, pathology of the respiratory system – 27.92%, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract – 22.08% were also found.
Conclusions. The influence of comorbid pathology on the course of mild mental retardation is complex and systemic – neurological and somatic pathology potentiates the emergence and development of psychopathological disorders. The presence of comorbid pathology in this contingent of patients increases the duration and frequency of inpatient treatment, contributes to the development of neurosis-like disorders, and leads to a deepening of social maladjustment.
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